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Xhosa, the second largest cultural group in South Africa, is a tonal bonding language of the Bantu family. They live mainly in southeastern South Africa. They took great care of their livestock because they were a symbol of wealth, status, and respect. Cattle were used to determine the price of a bride, or lobola, and were the most acceptable offering to ancestral spirits. Stick fighting is an art that Xhosas learn from an early age when herding cattle. Most of the sticks that Xhosa men carry were given to them at their circumcision ceremony. Face painting, oumchokozo, plays an important role in Xhosa culture, and women decorate their faces with white or yellow ocher and use dots to make patterns on their faces. The Xhosa people have several traditions rites os passage. Male and female initiation in the form of circumcision is practiced among most Xhosa groups.

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